• 2 medium summer squash, grated (about 2 1/2 cups)
  • 1 can corn
  • 1/2 cup chopped flat leaf parsley
  • 1 small red onion, chopped
  • 2 garlic cloves, minced
  • 1/2 cup Brother Bru Bru’s Mild African Hot Sauce
  • 1 cup grated Cheddar Cheese
  • 1 cup Pepper Jack Cheese
  • 8 whole wheat tortillas (burrito size)

 

1. Grate the summer squash into a colander and sprinkle lightly with salt to help draw out the water. Add the can of corn and let the squash and corn sit in the colander to drain for about an hour (Tip: Place the colander over a bowl to save the liquid for adding to soups later–its loaded with nutrients!)

2. Chop the onion and sweat over medium heat in a cast iron pan. Mince the garlic cloves and add them to the pan. After about ten minutes, add the squash and corn mixture and saute the vegetables together for another ten minutes. Add the parsley and 1/2 cup of Brother Bru Bru’s Mild African Sauce and continue cooking until the vegetables are slightly caramelized. (Note: You can use any of the Brother Bru Bru Sauces depending on your desired heat level.) Remove vegetables from heat and set aside to cool.

3. Grate the cheeses and add to the vegetable mixture. Heat a large cast iron pan over medium to medium high heat. Spray lightly with cooking oil. Add one tortilla, then 1 1/2 cup of the mixture to the top. Add another tortilla and press down slightly to help spread the mixture evenly. Cook until golden brown (about 5-6 minutes) then carefully flip and brown the other side. Remove from pan and place in the oven to keep warm while you repeat the process with the remaining tortillas and vegetable mixture.

Serve with guacamole and salsa. And Brother Bru Bru’s!

 

 

 

Wilbur Scoville and the Organoleptic Test Centennial

By Dave DeWitt

[Author's Note: The year 2012 marks the Centennial Anniversary of the Scoville Organoleptic Test, so I decided to apply all my food history online research skills that I've honed over the past five years to create what is the first definitive—however brief—biographical essay on Scoville. Fortunately, the combination of Google Books, Google Scholar, and other online resources proved successful and at least now we know quite a bit more about Professor Scoville's professional life. His personal life remains shrouded in mystery.]

Wilbur Scoville as a Young Man

I seriously doubt that Wilbur Scoville ever imagined that he would be most remembered for his Scoville Organoleptic Test that was the first attempt ever to quantify the heat of chile peppers, in 1912. He probably had convinced himself that he would be most famous for authoring The Art of Compounding in 1895, which is now in its ninth edition, a facsimile, published in 2010. Although he was interested in chile peppers, he didn’t write much about them, preferring to focus on even more bizarre chemicals like the cantharides in Spanish fly.

 

A pharmaceutical chemist, college professor, magazine editor, laboratory director, and author, Wilbur Lincoln Scoville was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut in 1865. We know little about his early life except that his involvement with pharmacy began in 1881 when, at the age of fourteen, he worked at a drug store owned by E. Toucey in Bridgeport. This apparently influenced him greatly for in 1887, he moved to Boston to attend the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. He graduated in 1889 with a Ph.G. (“Graduate of Pharmacy”) and married Cora B. Upham in Wollaston, Massachusetts in 1891. They had two daughters together, Amy Augusta, born August 21, 1892 and Ruth Upham, born October 21, 1897. In 1892 he accepted the position of professor of pharmacy and applied pharmacy at his alma mater, where he taught until 1904. He also took on specialized journalism, becoming editor of the New England Druggist in 1894.

After just three years on the college faculty, when he was just thirty years old in 1895, his best-known work, The Art of Compounding, was published. The book was used as a standard pharmacological reference up until the 1960s. The subtitle of the book, A Text Book for Students and a Reference Book for Pharmacists at the Prescription Counter, gives us a clue as to why the book was so popular—there were two markets for it. I found a copy of this book in Google Books, and here are two notable quotes that I discovered. Scoville was one of the first, if not the first person to suggest in print that milk is an antidote for the heat of chiles. “Milk, as ordinarily obtained,” he wrote, “is seldom used except as a diluent [diluting agent]. In this capacity it serves well for covering the taste of sharp or acrid bodies as tinctures of capsicum, ginger, etc., and for many salts, chloral, etc.”

And he was insightful into the process of drug addiction as well as the addicts themselves. “The renewal of prescriptions is also a question for individual judgment,” he wrote. “In the majority of cases renewals are expected and granted, on demand, but occasions sometimes arise where a single vial-full is all that is needed or advisable. The notion that a medicine “can do no harm, if it does no good,” is in most cases erroneous, sometimes very decidedly so.” Then Scoville gets down to the real nitty-gritty: “Moreover, the pharmacist should remember that such conditions as are found in opium or cocaine habitues (not to say drunkards), often originate in the use of a prescription containing one of these drugs in some form, originally prescribed for a legitimate purpose, but renewed from time to time until the habit is established.” Early Oxycontin, anyone?

In 1897, he resigned as editor of the New England Druggist and the following year accepted the position of pharmacy editor of The Spatula, the journal-cum-magazine of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. It was called “The Illustrated Monthly Publication for Druggists,” and carried ads for Clifford’s Moustache Wax, Parke, Davis & Company’s Pure, Uncolored Insect Powder, and the Clean Font Modern Nursing Bottle, among others for industry products like drug bottles. The magazine was a chatty, informative publication featuring articles about new products, notable druggists, drug laws, and a bit of gossip. During his time there and beyond, from 1900 to 1910, Scoville was on the committee to revise the U.S. Pharmacopoeia and he chaired that committee during his final year on it. He also worked on revising the National Formulary and was a staunch advocate of pharmacy standards.

Scoville had a lively, inquisitive mind and did studies on the extracts of witchhazel and cinchona, and he wrote an article entitled “Some Observations on Glycerin Suppositories.” In 1903, his article “Standards for Flavor Extracts” was published in the American Journal of Pharmacy and it proved that Scoville was part of the same debates we have today over natural versus artificial flavors. A review of his article appeared in the Journal of the American Chemical Society and the reviewer had this to say about it: “Professor Scoville points out that flavoring extracts are not all used for the same purposes, that, of those who use them, few are good judges of quality. He who ‘lives to eat,’ the epicure, demands the very best of flavoring, not in the so-called ‘extracts’ only, but in the flavoring and seasoning of all of his dishes. He who ‘eats to live,’ the non-epicure, he whose sense of taste has not been carefully educated, and is not infallible, will allow to pass unnoticed a heavy or even a coarse flavor, or an inharmonius flavoring of the various dishes composing his meal.” At this point in his article, Scoville discussed a situation that modern home bakers still face: “One will insist upon having a vanilla extract made from the best Mexican beans, while the other will be satisfied with an extract prepared from Tahiti or Vanillon beans, or from some combination of these with vanillin, tonka, or cumarin. The difference between these flavoring agents is not one of wholesomeness, but one of taste. If the public finds that the distinction between vanilla and vanillin is too subtile for the average discrimination, and that vanillin holds its flavor better in cooking, why should the epicure object to the non-epicure enjoying it?’”

In 1904, Scoville resigned from the college, and Benjamin Lillard, editor of The Practical Druggist, had this to say about it: “Professor Wilbur L. Scoville, who has been known for many years as a prominent professor in the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, has resigned his position and accepted a berth with a large firm of Boston retailers owning four stores. It is unfortunate that the independent colleges are not in position to pay larger salaries and keep men of Professor Scoville’s ability.” Scoville was director of the Jaynes Analytical Laboratory, just purchased by the Riker drug stores, where for $2.50 per patient, his staff performed urine analyses. And he was continuing to publish articles in theAmerican Journal of Pharmacy, like “Aromatic Elixir” in the April, 1904 issue.

But commercial laboratory work didn’t last long. Scoville was recruited by one of The Spatula’sadvertisers, Parke, Davis & Company in 1907 and moved his family from Boston to Detroit. The Bulletin of Pharmacy, published in Detroit, had this to say about Scoville’s hire: “In a great house like Parke, Davis & Company, Professor Scoville will have ample opportunity to utilize his varied abilities to the utmost.” And one of those abilities—his work with Heet, a muscle salve manufactured by the company he had just joined—would make him famous.

Heet was made with chile peppers and the problem was standardizing the type and the amount of chiles that needed to be added to the other ingredients of Heet to standardize the formulation and avoid burning the skin of the person using it. Scoville was assigned to solve this problem, which took a few years due to his other duties. In the earliest reference to his work on chiles, the American Journal of Pharmacy noted in 1911: “Wilbur L. Scoville presented a Note on Capsicum, showing the great variation in the strength of capsicum, and suggesting the possibility of the pungency of this drug being used as a simple test for quality. This paper elicited some discussion in the course of which it was pointed out that the physiological test for capsicum was infinitely more delicate and more reliable than the similar test that has been proposed for use in connection with aconite.”

At the American Pharmaceutical Association annual meeting in Denver in 1912, Scoville presented a paper on his solution to the Heet problem: the Scoville Organoleptic Test. Albert Brown Lyons, writing in Practical Standardization by Chemical Assay of Organic Drugs and Galenicals (1920), explains. “It is quite possible to form a reasonably ‘exact judgment’ of the ‘strength’ of a sample of the drug [capsaicin] by the simple expedient of testing its pungency. W. L. Scoville proposes the following practical method. Macerate 0.1 gm. of ground capsicum overnight in 100 mils of alcohol; shake well and filter. Add this tincture to sweetened water (10% sugar) in such proportion that a distinct but weak pungency is perceptible to the tongue or throat. According to Scoville official capsicum will respond to this test in a dilution of 1 : 50,000. He found the Mombassa chilles to test from 1 : 50,000 to 1 : 100,000; Zanzibar chillies, 1 : 40,000 to 1 : 45,000; Japan chillies 1 : 20,000 to 1 : 30,000. Nelson found that a single drop of a solution of capsaicin in alcohol 1 : 1,000,000, applied to the tip of the tongue produced a distinct impression of warmth.”

“Organoleptic” means using the sense organs for taste, color, aroma, and feel to evaluate a food or drug and Scoville’s worked because the flavor was not important, just the perceived pungency. Scoville used a panel of tasters who kept sampling the mixture of chiles and sugar water until the pungency was gone. At that point the amount of dilution, such as one to fifty thousand, made gave the chile a heat level of 50,000 SHU, or Scoville Heat Units. Of course today, this tedious, expensive, and subjective test has been replaced by chromatography, but in 1912, this was breakthrough technology. As a result, Scoville’s career blossomed.

Scoville in 1907

In 1913, Scoville was elected second vice-chairman of the American Pharmaceutical Association and read his paper “Tincture of Cantharides and its Assay” at the annual meeting. Years later, he would be nominated as president of the association but withdrew his name because he was too busy working on revising the National Formulary. In 1918, his bookExtracts and Perfumes was published. It was a pharmacology study containing hundreds of formulations. The book, published in hardcover, sold for one dollar. In 1922, Scoville won the Ebert Prize from the American Pharmaceutical Association; the prize, established in 1873, is the oldest pharmacy award in existence in the United States and is awarded to the best essay or written communication containing an original investigation of a medicinal substance in the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. In 1929 he received the Remington Honor Medal, the American Pharmaceutical Association’s top award “to recognize distinguished service on behalf of American pharmacy during the preceding years, culminating in the past year, or during a long period of outstanding activity or fruitful achievement.” Scoville also received an honorary Doctor of Science from Columbia University the same year.

At the age of 69, Scoville retired from Parke, Davis in 1934. The company had this to say about him, probably written by Frank G. Ryan, the president, writing in Modern Pharmacy but covered in theJournal of the South Carolina Medical Association: “Three or four years ago, in the gradual development of our scientific staff, we secured the services of Professor Wilbur L. Scoville, a pharmacist well known to the country and a man preeminent in the field of what has been termed pharmaceutical elegance. Professor Scoville may well be considered an artist in questions concerning odor, flavor and appearance of galenicals. The first task assigned to Professor Scoville was to go systematically and patiently through our entire line of elixirs—regardless of what other workers had done before him, and regardless of what changes were under consideration at the time. He was given carte blanche to go ahead and suggest any modification and improvements which seemed to him necessary.”

Wilbur Lincoln Scoville died in Detroit in 1942 at the age of 77.

 

Bibliography

Anon. “Review of Standards of Flavoring Extracts, by Wilbur Scoville.” “Pharmaceutical Chemistry,”
Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 25 (1903), 570.
Anon. “Professor Scoville Joins Parke, Davis and Company.” Bulletin of Pharmacy, Vol. 21. Detroit: E.G. Swift, 1907, 496.
Anon. “Westward a Star of Pharmacy Takes His Way.” The Druggists Circular, Vol 51 (December). New York: The Circular, 1907, 799.
Anon. “Elixirs Deluxe.” Journal of the South Carolina Medical Association. Volume 7 (Feb., 1911), 73-74.
Anon. “Section on Scientific Papers.” American Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. 83 (1911), 440.
Anon. “Minutes of the Section of Scientific Papers.” Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1, 1912, 1204.
Brainard, Homer Worthington. A Survey of the Scovils or Scovills in England and America: Seven Hundred Years of History and Genealogy. Privately Printed, 1915.
Lillard, Benjamin. Practical Druggist and Pharmaceutical Review of Reviews, Volumes 13-16. Lillard & Co., 1904.
Lyons, Albert Brown. Practical Standardization by Chemical Assay of Organic Drugs and Galenicals.Detroit: Nelson, Baker, 1920, 238.
Marquis, Albert Nelson. Who’s Who in New England, Vol. 1. A.N. Marquis, 1909.
Scoville, Wilbur L. The Art of Compounding. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son, 1895.
Scoville, Wilbur L. “Tincture of Cantharides and its Assay.” Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 2, 1913, 18-22.
Scoville, Wilbur L. “Tincture of Cantharides.” National Druggist, Vol. 48, February, 1918, 57.
Worthen, Dennis B. “How Hot is Hot? Scoville’s Test for Heat of Peppers Marked an Early success for Pharmacist Research.” Pharmacy Practice News, Vol. 36:08, August, 2009, online at http://www.pharmacypracticenews.com/ViewArticle.aspx?d=Pharmacy+Heritage&d_id=206&i=August+2009&i_id=553&a_id=13683
Also Consulted:
NNDB, the Notable Names Database.
Wilbur Lincoln Scoville on Facebook.

This is a great dish to make when you are partying with friends on a hot summer night. The shrimp is wildly smoky and spicy and the salad is cooling, but with has a rockin’ kick!

For the Shrimp:

  • 1 cup silver tequila
  • 1 cup freshly squeezed citrus juices (1 each orange, lemon, and lime)
  • 1/4 cup fresh peeled ginger, finely minced 
  • 2 cloves of garlic, finely minced
  • 1 jalapeno, seeded and chopped
  • 1/4 to 1/2 Brother Bru Bru’s Original African Hot Sauce (depends on the level of spice desired)
  • 1/2 cup light cooking oil (such as canola or vegetable)
  • 1 pound large shrimp, shells on (devined)
  • Wooden Skewers

Combine tequila, juices, ginger, garlic, jalapeno, and Brother Bru Bru’s, in a large bowl. Slowly whisk in the oil to create an emulsion. Add the shrimp and allow to marinade for 45-60 minutes. Soak skewers for at least 45 minutes.

Pre-heat grill on high. When pre-heated, turn the heat down to medium high. Place the skewered shrimp on the hot grill and cook until the shells are slightly blackened.

While the shrimp are cooking, put the marinade into a small sauce pan and heat over medium high heat until reduced (about ten minutes).

Once shrimp is done, transfer skewers to a platter and pour reduced marinade over top. (Alternatively you can leave it on the side for dipping).

Serve with yellow saffron rice.

For the Salad:

  • 2 limes, juiced
  • 2 shots of tequila
  • 1 teaspoon sugar
  • 1 tablespoon of orange liquor
  • 1 cup watermelon
  • 1 cup cantalope
  • 1 cup honeydew
  • 1 cup grapefruit sections
  • 1 cup rocket (or arugla)
  • 1/2 cup each assorted herbs of your choice (I used pineapple mint, cilantro, and lime basil, but you can use what ever you have in your garden or can find at your local market. It is really up to your tastes)

Combine all ingredients, cover and marinade in the refrigerator until ready to serve.

 

Ingredients
Pizza Dough

  • 2 cups flour, plus a couple of tablespoons more for kneading and rolling
  • 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
  • ½ teaspoon salt
  • ⅔ cup water
  • 1 tablespoon honey (if you don’t have honey, you can substitute sugar)
  • 1 package yeast

Brother Bru Bru’s Pizza Sauce

  • ¼ cup (4 ounces) Brother Bru Bru’s African Chipotle Pepper Sauce
  • ¼ cup (4 ounces) tomato paste
  • 1 tablespoon extra virgin olive oil
  • ½ teaspoon salt (use more or less to taste)
  • ½ teaspoon pepper (use more or less to taste)

Preparation Instructions
Pizza Dough
1. To begin, proof the yeast by mixing the water* and honey together in a cup or glass and adding the yeast. After about 10 minutes if the water mixture has a head of frothy foam on the top the yeast is active.
*Note: Water should be between 100-110oF (approximately 38-43oC) in order for the yeast to activate. Too low and the yeast won’t come alive. Too hot and the yeast will die. Using a thermometer will greatly aid your accuracy.

2. Put the 2 cups of flour, olive oil and salt into a large mixing bowl and stir together thoroughly. Once the yeast has proofed slowly add the water to the flour and mix until no loose flour remains
and the dough forms a ball. Turn the dough out of the bowl onto a counter or cutting board lightly dusted with flour and knead it for 3 or 4 minutes until it is smooth and firm. When ready the dough will stretch slightly when pulled.

3. After kneading the dough return it to the bowl, cover the bowl with plastic wrap and let the dough rise by placing it into a location at about 80-85oF (27-29oC). A good technique is to place the bowl containing the dough in a sunny spot in your kitchen, or in an oven warmed by the pilot light, or on the top rack of an oven with a pan of hot water directly under it on the lower rack. Let the dough rise until it has doubled in size, about 45 minutes.

4. Once the dough has risen, turn it out of the bowl onto a cutting board or counter which has been dusted with flour. Cut the dough in halves and form each half into a ball. Roll each dough ball into a round pizza crust approximately 12 inches in diameter. If you’d prefer you can cut the dough into thirds or fourths and roll each portion into a smaller pizza. After rolling your pizza crusts should be about ¼ inch thick. Your crusts are now ready for cooking.

Pizza Sauce
1. Mix together the Brother Bru Bru’s African Chipotle Pepper Sauce, tomato paste, extra virgin olive oil, salt, and pepper until thoroughly combined.

Toppings
1. You can top a pizza with just about anything you like. Some toppings we’ve used that we really enjoyed include thin sliced tomatoes (Roma tomatoes work best), sliced green, red, and yellow bell peppers, thin sliced red onions, mushrooms, pineapple, lightly streamed broccoli, pre-cooked string beans, black olives, mozzarella cheese, grated parmesan cheese, pepperoni, ham, hard salami, and Italian sausage.

Cooking Instructions

1. Preheat oven to 400oF (approx. 204oC).
2. Ladle the sauce out onto the pizza crusts and spread evenly to within ½ inch of the edge.
3. Place your desired toppings on top of the sauced crusts and bake in the oven for 8-10 minutes or until the edge of the crust turns brown.
4. When cooked remove pizzas from the oven and let rest for 3-5 minutes.
5. Then slice into 6-8 pieces. Bon appétit!

Tips

  • Want your sauce hotter? Replace part or all of Brother Bru Bru’s African Chipotle Pepper Sauce (Hot) with Brother Bru Bru’s African Hot Pepper Sauce (Very Hot).
  • Want to cool it down a bit? Try a mix of 50% Brother Bru Bru’s African Chipotle Pepper Sauce (Hot) and Brother Bru Bru’s African Chili Pepper Sauce (Mild).
  • Want your sauce tame? (Not everyone is a fanatic.) Replace Brother Bru Bru’s African Chipotle Pepper Sauce (Hot) with Brother Bru Bru’s African Chili Pepper Sauce (Mild).
  • Making pizza dough yourself too time consuming, or too much trouble? Try purchasing ready made pizza dough from your grocer. Just roll it out per the instructions on the package, top with Brother Bru Bru’s pizza sauce and the toppings of your choice, and you’re ready to cook.

But no matter how you like your pizza – KEEP IT HOT!

There surely must be something really healthy in using apple cider vinegar, since historical records suggest that even The Father of Medicine, Hippocrates, used it back in around 400 B.C. for its health giving qualities. Apple cider vinegar is made from fresh ripe apples that are fermented and undergo a stringent process to create the final product. The vinegar contains a host of vitamins, beta-carotene, pectin and vital minerals such as potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorous, chlorine, sulfur, iron, and fluorine. All the much-talked about organic apple cider vinegar health benefits are attributed to the presence of these very nutrients that it is laden with.

•It contains a significant amount of pectin in it, and therefore this vinegar is known to help in regulating blood pressure and reducing bad cholesterol in the body.

•It extracts calcium from fruits, vegetables and meat, when used salad dressing or to
marinate meat, and thus contributes in the development and strengthening of bones and teeth.

•Apple cider vinegar is loaded with potassium, and therefore it is used for the treatment of a variety of ailments including hair loss, weak finger nails, brittle teeth, sinusitis, and a permanently running nose.

•With its potassium content, it is known to tackle the problem of stunted growth which can be attributed to potassium deficiency. The potassium in this vinegar also helps in eliminating toxic waste from the body.

•The beta-carotene in it helps in countering damage caused by free radicals, helping one maintain firmer skin and a youthful appearance.

•Apple cider vinegar is good for those who want to lose weight, as it helps in breaking down fat to facilitate natural weight reduction.

•The vinegar contains malic acid which is helpful in fighting fungal and bacterial infections. This acid dissolves uric acid deposits that form around joints, and help in relieving joint pains. (The dissolved uric acid is eventually eliminated from the body.)

Research claims that it is helpful in ailments such as constipation, headaches, arthritis, weak bones, indigestion, high cholesterol, diarrhea, eczema, sore eyes, chronic fatigue, mild food poisoning, hair loss, high blood pressure, obesity, along with a host of many other ailments. No wonder then many know apple cider vinegar as the ‘Wonder Drug’.­

 

Mathis, Kevin. “Health Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar,” Buzzle.com

 

Marinade:

  • 1 cup coconut milk
  • 1 tablespoon soy sauce
  • 2 tablespoons grated ginger root
  • 4 gloves of finely chopped garlic
  • 1/2 cup chopped cilantro
  • 2 tablespoons of lime juice
  • 1/2 teaspoon cumin
  • Salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
  • 1 pound boneless, skinless chicken breasts
  • Bamboo skewers, soaked in cold water

Peanut Sauce:

Cucumber Relish:

  • 1 large cucumber, peeled, halved and thinly sliced
  • 1/2 white onion, thinly sliced
  • 2 jalapeno chili’s, thinly sliced
  • 1/2 cup apple cider vinegar
  • 2 teaspoons palm sugar or brown sugar
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • Cilantro leaves, for garnish

Directions

In a bowl, combine all the marinade ingredients except the chicken. Slice the chicken into long, thin strips, about 3 inches long by 1 inch wide, and add to marinade. Turn chicken to coat, cover and refrigerate for up to 4 hours.   Meanwhile, prepare the sauce: Bring the coconut milk to a simmer in a small saucepan. Whisk in Brother Bru Bru’s until dissolved, about 1 to 2 minutes. Whisk in almond butter and stock, reduce heat and cook until smooth, stirring constantly, about 5 minutes. Remove from heat and add lime juice and salt. Set aside to cool to room temperature.   Prepare relish: Place cucumber, onion, and pepper slices in a small bowl. Heat the vinegar, sugar and salt in a small saucepan, stirring, until mixture reaches a boil and sugar is dissolved, about 3 minutes. Remove from the heat, cool to room temperature, and then pour over cucumber mixture. Garnish with cilantro leaves and set aside.   Prepare grill and thread marinated chicken onto soaked bamboo skewers. Place on grill and cook 5 to 7 minutes, or until cooked through, turning once. Serve with peanut sauce and cucumber relish.

Cooking time 50 minutes. Makes 24 hot wings

Ingredients:

Chicken Wings:

  • 12 whole chicken wings

Hot Wing Sauce

  • ¼ cup (4 ounces) Brother Bru Bru’s African Chipotle Pepper Sauce
  • 2 tablespoons (1 ounce) butter (preferably unsalted butter made from milk produced without
  • rBST)
  • 1 ounce olive oil (preferably extra virgin)
  • ½ teaspoon salt (use more or less to taste)
  • ½ teaspoon pepper (use more or less to taste)

Dipping Sauce:

  • 4 ounces plain (unsweetened, unflavored) Greek style yogurt
  • 1 ounce crumbled blue cheese
  • ½ teaspoon salt (use more or less to taste)
  • 1 teaspoon cracked pepper (use more or less to taste)

Cooling sticks:

  • 12 carrot sticks
  • 12 celery sticks

and/or

  • 12 apple slices

Cooking Instructions:

1. Pre-heat oven to 350 degrees. Cut off the tips from the wings and discard. Separate the drumettes
and wingettes by cutting through the joint between them. This yields 24 hot wings.

2. Put the wings in a plastic bag or bowl, pour the olive oil and sprinkle the salt and pepper over
the wings and mix until coated. Place wings on a greased cookie sheet and bake for 45 minutes,
turning once halfway through (after about 20-25 minutes). When the wings are done baking put
them under the broiler for about 2-3 minutes.

3. While the wings are cooking prepare the wing sauce and dipping sauces.

4. To prepare the hot wing sauce melt the butter and then whisk (or stir) it and the Brother Bru
Bru’s African Chipotle Pepper Sauce together in a bowl large enough to hold all of the wings.

5. Prepare the blue cheese dipping sauce by placing the yogurt, crumbled blue cheese, salt and
pepper into a mixing bowl and stirring them together until well blended.

6. Cut carrots, celery, and/or apples into slices

7. When the wings are cooked remove them from the oven, place them into the bowl with the hot
wing sauce and toss until the wings are thoroughly coated.

8. Serve the wings with the dipping sauce and cooling sticks. A nice presentation is to place the
wings on one side of a serving tray with the cooling sticks on the other and the dipping sauce in
between.

Enjoy! And remember KEEP IT HOT!

Tips:

Want your wings hotter? Replace all or part of Brother Bru Bru’s African Chipotle Pepper Sauce
(Hot) with Brother Bru Bru’s African Hot Pepper Sauce (Very Hot).

Want to take the edge off? Try a mix of 50% Brother Bru Bru’s African Chipotle Pepper Sauce
(Hot) and Brother Bru Bru’s African Chili Pepper Sauce (Mild).

Want them tamed? (Hey, everyone’s tastes are different.) Replace Brother Bru Bru’s African

Chipotle Pepper Sauce (Hot) with Brother Bru Bru’s African Chili Pepper Sauce (Mild).

Garlic Pulled Pork

Pulled pork ian American classic and can be prepared easily, but it does take some time to do it right. Pulled pork comes from the shoulder of the pig, often times referred to as the butt (the upper portion of the shoulder). The butt contains a lot of fat and connective tissues which contributes to moist, succulent meat when treated with a “low and slow” cooking method. Many people drown pulled pork in some form of BBQ Sauce, but this recipes subtlety enhances the meat’s natural flavors.

Ingredients:

  • 1 pork shoulder, about 4 lbs
  • 1/2 tsp cumin
  • 1/2 tsp paprika
  • 2 Tbsp Brother Bru Bru’s Chipotle Sauce
  • 6 garlic cloves, peeled
  • Juice of 1 lime
  • 1/2 cup of cilantro
  • 1 onion
  • 2 bay leaves
  • Sea salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste

Directions:

  1. Preheat your oven to 250 F.
  2. In a bowl, combine the lime juice with the cumin, Bru Bru Sauce, cilantro and sea salt and pepper to taste.
  3. Rub the spice and lime juice mixture all over the pork.
  4. Make six small incisions on the pork shoulder and insert a garlic clove in each of them.
  5. Place the sliced onion in the bottom of a roasting pan with the bay leaf and the pork    shoulder on top. Cover tightly with foil.
  6. Place in the middle of the oven to roast for about 4 hours, until the meat falls apart very easily when pulled with a fork.
  7. Remove from the oven and let rest, covered, for 15 minutes before pulling out the delicious pork and serving it with its own juices.

 

Zucchini Cakes

Zucchini is a good example of a summer squash that’s usually really easy to grow in a small garden. Often times you have so much zucchini in your garden you can’t even give it away! It is a very versatile vegetable that can be used in a multitude of preparations. Kids (and my husband) are not the biggest fans of this vegetable, but this preparation, with its the crispy texture and buttery flavor, usually wins them over.

Ingredients:

  • 2 medium zucchini
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 3 green onions, finely chopped
  • 2 cloves garlic, minced
  • 1 egg
  • ½ cup almond flour (optional)
  • ½ tsp baking powder
  • Coconut oil or clarified butter, for cooking
Directions:
  1. Begin by using a large-scale grater to grate your zucchini. You want to avoid creating small, thin strands, as the zucchini could get mushy upon frying.
  2. Once grated, place in a bowl and toss in the salt. Allow the zucchini to sit in the salt for at least 10 minutes. Then, extract any excess water from the zucchini (if you have never done this before, I am sure you will be surprised at how much water there actually is!). The easiest way to do this is to place the grated vegetable in a large piece of cheese cloth and wring it out.
  3. Return the zucchini to a large bowl and combine with the green onions, garlic, egg and baking powder. You could use almond flour, as it really helps in keeping the cakes from crumbling a apart, but you can also do without.
  4. Once everything has been mixed, form cakes of about 2 to 2.5″ in diameter out of the mixture.
  5. Place a large skillet over a medium-high heat. You want to allow the skillet to really warm up prior to adding any cooking fat to the pan.
  6. Add some of your chosen cooking fat to the pan, just enough to coat the surface of the skillet and then place the zucchini cakes in the pan. Allow them to cook for about 3 to 4 minutes on each side, just enough so that they are crispy and golden brown.

 

Capsaicin, the stuff that turns up the heat in jalapeños, [and Brother Bru Bru’s contains Habañero peppers which have WAY more capsaicin than Jalapeño or Tabasco peppers] not only causes the tongue to burn, it also drives prostate cancer cells to kill themselves, according to studies published in the March 15 issue of Cancer Research.

According to a team of researchers from the Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, in collaboration with colleagues from UCLA, the pepper component caused human prostate cancer cells to undergo programmed cell death or apoptosis.

Capsaicin induced approximately 80 percent of prostate cancer cells growing in mice to follow the molecular pathways leading to apoptosis. Prostate cancer tumors treated with capsaicin were about one-fifth the size of tumors in non-treated mice.

“Capsaicin had a profound anti-proliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells in culture,” said Sören Lehmann, M.D., Ph.D., visiting scientist at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and the UCLA School of Medicine. “It also dramatically slowed the development of prostate tumors formed by those human cell lines grown in mouse models.”

Lehmann estimated that the dose of pepper extract fed orally to the mice was equivalent to giving 400 milligrams of capsaicin three times a week to a 200 pound man, roughly equivalent to between three and eight fresh habañero peppers – depending on the pepper’s capsaicin content. Habañeros are the highest rated pepper for capsaicin content according to the Scoville heat index. Habañero peppers, which are native to the Yucatan, typically contain up to 300,000 Scoville units. The more popular Jalapeño variety from Oaxaca, Mexico, and the southwest United States, contains 2,500 to 5,000 Scoville units.

As described in their study, the scientists observed that capsaicin inhibited the activity of NF-kappa Beta, a molecular mechanism that participates in the pathways leading to apoptosis in many cell types.

Apoptosis is a normal cellular event in many tissues that maintains a balance between newer replacement cells and aged or worn cells. In contrast, cancer cells seek to be immortal and often dodge apoptosis by mutating or deregulating the genes that participate in programmed cell death.

“When we noticed that capsaicin affected NF-kappa Beta, that was an indication that we might expect some of the apoptotic proteins to be affected,” said the study’s senior author, Phillip Koeffler, M.D., director of Hematology and Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, and professor at UCLA.

The pepper extract also curbed the growth of prostate cancer cells through regulation of androgen receptors, the steroid activated proteins that control expression of specific growth relating genes.

In prostate cancer cells whose growth is dependent on testosterone, the predominant male sex steroid, capsaicin reduced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Increased concentrations of capsaicin caused more prostate cancer cells to freeze in a non-proliferative state, called G0/G1.
Prostate cancer cells that are androgen independent reacted to capsaicin in a similar manner. Capsaicin reduced the amount of androgen receptor that the tumor cells produced, but did not interfere with normal movement of androgen receptor into the nucleus of the cancer cells where the steroid receptor acts to regulate androgen target genes such as prostate specific antigen (PSA). Capsaicin also interfered with the action of androgen receptors even in cells that were modified to produce excess numbers of androgen receptors.

The hot pepper component also reduced cancer cell production of PSA, a protein that often is produced in high quantities by prostate tumors and can signal the presence of prostate cancer in men. PSA content in the blood of men is used as a diagnostic prostate cancer screening measure. PSA is regulated by androgens, and capsaicin limited androgen-induced increases of PSA in the cancer cell lines.

More men in the United States develop prostate cancer than any other type of malignancy. Every year, more than 232,000 new cases of prostate cancer are diagnosed in the U.S., and more than 680,000 develop the disease worldwide. Approximately 30,000 men die from prostate cancer in the U.S. each year, which is about 13 percent of all new cases. Worldwide, there are 221,000 deaths – approximately 31 per cent – among men with prostate cancer.

Lehman conducted the studies in Koeffler’s laboratory in collaboration with UCLA cancer researchers Akio Mori, James O’Kelly, Takishi Kumagai, Julian Desmond, Milena Pervan, and William McBride. Mosahiro Kizaki, a former post-doctoral fellow in Koeffler’s laboratory who initiated the capsaicin studies, is currently at the Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
American Association for Cancer Research

Russell Vanderboom, Ph.D.
215-440-9300 ext. 120

http://www.aacr.org/home/public–media/aacr-in-the-news.aspx?d=583

Capsaicin Comparison ~ Scoville Units
Jalapeño 2,500 ~ 8,000
Tabasco 30,000 ~ 50,000
Habañero 150,000 ~ 575,000

By Marvin J. Wolf

When my nephew was born in a Seoul suburb, my Korean in-laws decorated their front door with a cluster of bright red chili peppers, a neighborhood announcement that a son had been born to their household.

But why chili peppers? Some Koreans say the peppers’ phallic shape is the message and, as a bonus, folk wisdom says peppers eaten regularly enhance male potency.

Others, especially those acquainted with Korea’s corps of herbalists and Chinese Medicine Practitioners, say that because a diet that includes chili peppers ensures a long and healthy life, the door decorations symbolize a wish for a healthy, robust child.

It’s no secret that Korean food is often very spicy, especially kimchi, the national dish. At least one of this fiery condiment’s many varieties is served with virtually every meal. And every one is loaded with the fiery seeds and ribs of red chilis.

The complex chemical substance that gives chilis their bite is capsaicin, arguably  nature’s most health-enhancing herb. Applied topically in a cream, capsaicin soothes sore muscles, the aches of rheumatism and the pain of bruises. Ingested
it becomes a wonder drug, lowering blood pressure, releasing brain endorphins, speeding up lipid (fat) metabolism, improving digestion, acting as a gentle laxative, reducing cholesterol—just a few of the long list of its beneficial effects.

And recently, scientists at the Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, and their UCLA Medical School colleagues, observed that capsaicin causes human prostate cancer cells to undergo programmed cell death or apoptosis.

In studies using human cells implanted in mice, Sören Lehmann, M.D., Ph.D., a visiting scientist at Cedars-Sinai and the UCLA, concluded that capsaicin not only retards the growth of human prostate cancer cells, it also slows the development of prostate tumors.

Dr. Lehmann’s study also showed that the growth of both kinds of prostate cancer cells—those dependent on testosterone for growth and those that don’t—is frozen.

That’s right: Eat enough chili peppers and your prostate cancer cells commit suicide.

As it happens, I was diagnosed with prostate cancer a few years ago, a result, my doctors think, of my exposure to Agent Orange while serving in Vietnam. So how many peppers do I have to eat to get rid of my cancer?

Well, Pilgrims, that depends on what kind of peppers. Jalapeños, like those used in many popular hot sauces, or tabascos, from which the most popular hot sauce takes its name, have a fair amount of capsaicin. But neither can hold a candle to a tiny, heart-shaped orange pepper called the habañero. That one nears the top of the Scoville heat index, which measures capsaicin content.

Which is why when I make my extended-family-famous T‘n’T chili (turkey and tofu, patent pending, no explosive qualities) I don’t use Tabasco. Instead, I throw in a couple of finely minced habañeros.

Lehmann estimates that his lab mice ingested capsaicin in amounts equivalent to a 200 lb man eating between three and eight fresh habañero peppers a week.

That’s a lot of fire to swallow. As I recently discovered, there’s an even more delicious way to get capsaicin down the hatch: Brother Bru-Bru’s African Hot Pepper Sauce. Made with habañeros, it’s four-alarm hot. I’ve started using it in my chili and a dozen other dishes; my daughter and her Korean-American cousins can’t get enough of it.

And Brother Bru-Bru’s has NO salt. So those with hypertension or other reasons for a low-sodium diet can safely satisfy their quest for fiery food.

Brother Bru-Bru’s is available in health food and specialty stores in all 50 states and, west of the Rockies, in Whole Foods Markets. It may also be ordered from www.brobrubru.com. A portion of company profits go to help provide clean water for African villages.

November is National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month

Zero – The Project to End Prostate Cancer

10 G Street NE, Suite 601
Washington, DC 20002
(888) 245-9455
(202) 463-9455
(202) 463-9456 Fax
info@zerocancer.org
www.zerocancer.org

Screenwriter and author Wolf is based in Los Angeles and is working on a mystery novel.